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National Gazetteer (1868) - Bamburgh

"BAMBURGH, (or Bamborough), a parish in the northern division of Bamburgh ward, in the county of Northumberland, 5 miles to the E. of Belford, its post town, where there is a station on the York, Newcastle, and Berwick railway. It is situated on the coast, and comprises the chapelries of Beadnell, Lucker, and North Sunderland, with the townships of Adderstone, Bamburgh, Bamburgh Castle, Bradford, and 16 others.

Bamburgh, though now only a village, was described by King Alfred as "the kingly burgh which men name Bebbanburgh," and was once of some importance. It returned two representatives to one of the parliaments of Edward I., and had the privilege of a market. An Augustine priory was founded here by Henry I., in 1127, as a cell to Nostell priory, in Yorkshire. Its value at the Dissolution was £124. A college, a monastery of Black Friars, and a hospital dedicated to St. Mary Magdalene were also founded here. The village is pleasantly situated near Budle Bay. The living is a perpetual curacy* in the diocese of Durham, of the value of £300, in the patronage of the trustees of Lord Crewe. The church is dedicated to St. Aidan, and stands in the village, about half a mile from the ruins of the ancient one erected by King Oswald in the castle. The churchyard contains the grave of the heroic Grace Darling, whose energy and exertions, with those of her aged father, were the means of rescuing from shipwreck some of the crew of the Forfarshire steamer. The annual value of the church estate charity is £100. The parish extends over an area of 26,234 acres.

"ADDERSTONE, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, Bamburgh ward, in the county of Northumberland, 3 miles to the S.E. of Beford. Adderstone House is the chief residence."

"BAMBURGH CASTLE, (or Bambrough Castle) a township in the parish and ward of Bamburgh, in the county of Northumberland, close to Bamburgh. This township includes the site of the castle, which is one of the most ancient forts in the kingdom. According to the Saxon Chronicle, it was erected about the middle of the 6th century by Ida, King of Northumberland, and was several times besieged before the Conquest.

After that event it was held by Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland, till, on occasion of an insurrection which he headed, it was besieged and taken by William Rufus. It stood many a rude attack in the reign of Stephen, and many another during the fierce wars of the Roses, but continued in the possession of the crown till the 17th century. James I. conferred the castle and the manor on John Forster, grandson of Sir John Forster, governor of the castle in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. In 1709, they were purchased by Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham, in consequence of the creditors of William Forster having filed a bill in Chancery in 1704. On his death, he gave these estates to trustees for charitable purposes, the particular application of the funds being left to their discretion. The surplusage of the rents of the estates at the disposal of the trustees, after the payments made by them in accordance with the will of the testator, did not at that time amount to £300 per annum, but the income has subsequently been much increased, and in 1830 the total income of Lord Crewe's estates was £8,126 8s. 8d. One of the objects kept in view has been the succouring of shipwrecked seamen; although many of the arrangements connected with the trust have been altered to meet the change of times and circumstances since the first trustees were appointed. A life-boat, always ready; signals for warning in stormy weather; storehouses for goods cast ashore, &c., are the chief elements of the provision made. The charity includes also a dispensary with a resident surgeon, a large and valuable library, and two schools, besides funds to spare for other charitable purposes. The castle had been in a state of dilapidation since the reign of Henry VII. but on the suggestion, and at the expense, of Dr. John Sharp, one of the first trustees, the keep was put in repair and made fit for the occasional residence of one of the trustees. The rock on which the castle stands rises perpendicularly from the sea to the height of 150 feet. The round towers on each side of the ancient gateway are still standing. A well was discovered in the keep in 1770, which was cut to the depth of 145 feet through the solid rock; and in 1773 the remains of an ancient chapel, built by King Oswald, were discovered. A curiously-carved font, found in it, is to be seen in the second library. The present name of the place is a corruption of the original Saxon name, Bebbanburgh, which, according to Bede, signified "town of Queen Bebba."

"BRADFORD, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, Bamburgh ward, in the county of Northumberland, 4 miles to the E. of Belford. It lies near the sea-coast, and the North-Eastern railway passes within a short distance."

"BUDLE, a township in the parish and ward of Bamburgh, in the county of Northumberland, 4 miles to the N.E. of Belford. It is seated on the coast of a bay of the same name, and has a small pier-harbour, subordinate to the port of Berwick. The coast is rocky, and exhibits, for about 20 miles southward, rapidly-alternating beds of trap, limestone, slate, and gritstone. The small river Warn falls into Budle Bay. Fine cockles are very abundant on the coast. There are several flour-mills. The principal residence is Budle House, formerly a seat of the Forsters of Bamburgh."

"BURTON, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, Bamburgh ward, in the county of Northumberland, 5 miles to the E. of Belford."

"CRUMSTONE ISLAND, an extra-parochial island in the county of Northumberland, 4 miles to the E. of Bamburgh Castle, the most southerly of the Staples Islands. It is a small desolate island, and has the Callers Reef on its W. side."

"ELFORD, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, N. division of Barnborough ward, county Northumberland, 5 miles S.E. of Belford. It is situated near the coast."

"FERN, (or Farn, and Staples), extra-parochial islands, in the hundred of Islandshire, county Northumberland. These are the principal of a group of islands lying off the north-eastern coast of the county, from 3 to 5 miles E. of Bamburgh, some of them being mere rocks, invisible at high water. The navigation here is attended with much danger. St. Cuthbert is said to have spent the latter part of his life upon one of them; and there are some remains of a priory bearing his name. Here are two beacons nearly 30 feet high, which may be seen from a distance of 12 miles. This spot is rendered memorable by the heroic conduct of Grace Darling and her father in rescuing the people of the steamer Forfarshire from eminent peril, in 1838.

"FLEETHAM, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, N. division of Bamburgh ward, county Northumberland, 6 miles S.E. of Belford."

"FOWBERRY, a village in the township and parish of Bamburgh, county Northumberland, 3 miles N.E. of Wooler. It is situated on the river Till. Fowberry Tower is an old fortified residence, and was more than once assailed in the border wars."

"GLORORUM, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, N. division of the ward of Bamburgh, county Northumberland, 5 miles E. of Belford. The land belongs to Greenwich Hospital."

"HOPPEN, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, N. division of Bamburgh ward, county Northumberland, 4 miles S.E. of Belford. William Pawson, Esq., is owner of all the land."

"KNAVESTONE, an extra parochial place, it is a sunken rock to the N. of the Staples Islands, county Northumberland."

"LONGSTONE ISLAND, an extra parochial place, one of the Staples or Farne Islands, county Northumberland. It is about 1 mile in circumference, and has a lighthouse, erected in 1827, which may be seen for 13 miles."

"MEGSTONE, an extra parochial place, it is a rock near Fern Island, coast of county Northumberland."

"MONKHOUSE, an extra-parochial place, in the hundred of Islandshire, county Northumberland, formerly in Durham."

"MOUSON, (or Mowson), a township in the parish of Bamburgh, N. division of Bamburgh ward, county Northumberland, 2 miles S. of Belford. There is no village, only a few farmhouses. In this township are vestiges of a Roman camp.

"NEWHAM, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, county Northumberland, 5 miles S.E. of Belford. The township is intersected by the York, Newcastle, and Berwick section of the North-Eastern railway, on which is a station. The village is small. There is a school for both sexes. The Duke of Northumberland is lord of the manor, and sole landowner. The soil is fertile, and the chief crops are barley, wheat, and potatoes."

"NEWSTEAD, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, N. division of Bamburgh ward, county Northumberland, 5 miles S.E. of Belford. The soil is clay. The Duke of Northumberland is lord of the manor."

"NORTH SUNDERLAND, a township in the parish and ward of Bamburgh, county Northumberland, 8 miles S.E. of Belford, its post town, and 3 S. of Bamburgh Castle. It is an extensive village, situated on the E. coast of the North Sea, and has a small port subject to Berwick. The chapelry includes the townships of North Sunderland, Fleetham, Tuggall, Swinhoe, and Elford. Many of the inhabitants are employed in the neighbouring quarries and collieries, and in the burning of lime at the kilns. A lock-up was erected in 1852. The soil is clay and sand, with a subsoil of clay and rock. The living is a perpetual curacy* in the diocese of Durham, value £200. The church, dedicated to St. Paul, was built by Lord Crewe's trustees in 1833. There is a National school for both sexes, at which a Sunday-school is also held. The Presbyterians have two chapels. A feast is held on 12th August.

"OUTCHESTER, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, N. division of Bamburgh ward, county Northumberland, 2 miles E. of Belford. It is situated on the western bank of the river Waren, or Warn, near its outlet into Budle Bay, and was the site of the Castrum Ulterius of the ancient port of Warnmouth. There is a small Roman camp at Chester Hill, which is of a square form, and was approached from Alnwick. The land is fertile, with a subsoil of clay and limestone. The bay affords anchorage for small vessels. The principal trade is in the export of corn and flour, and in importing coal and wood."

"RATCHWOOD, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, county Northumberland, 4 miles S.E. of Belford."

"SHOSTON, (or Shoreston), a township in the parish of Bamburgh, N. division of Bamburgh ward, county Northumberland, 6 miles S.E. of Belford. It is situated on the coast, and is wholly agricultural.

"SPINDLESTONE, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, N. division of Barnbrough ward, county Northumberland, 3 miles S.E. of Belford. It was formerly a Roman station, with remains of Danish camps, &c. The soil is clayey."

"STAPLES ISLANDS, extra parochial islands in the hundred of Islandshire, county Northumberland, formerly in Durham, 4 miles N.E. of Bamburgh. They are situated beyond the Farn Islands, and comprise Crumstone, Brownsman, Knavestone, and Longstone, on which last is a lighthouse 75 feet high."

"SWINHOE, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, N. division of Barnbrough ward, county Northumberland, 9 miles N.E. of Alnwick, and 8 S.E. of Belford. It is situated near the coast, and was once held by the De Vescis, from whom it came to the Nevilles of Raby. The soil is clayey."

"TUGHALL, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, and N. division of Bamburgh ward, county Northumberland, 8 miles N.E. of Alnwick, and about the same distance S.E. of Belford. It is situated near the coast. The Duke of Northumberland is lord of the manor."

"WARENFORD, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, N. division of Bamburgh ward, county Northumberland, 4 miles S.E. of Belford. The village is situate on the river Waren. The soil is clayey with a subsoil of clay. There is an English Presbyterian church, with a school."

"WARENTON, a township in the parish of Bamburgh, N. division of Bamburgh ward, county Northumberland, 2 miles S.W. of Belford. There is a chapel for the Presbyterians. The soil is clayey with a subsoil of clay."

"WARNHAM FLATS, an extra parochial place, lying inside Farne Isles, on the coast of Northumberland, near Bamburgh Castle. They are overflowed by the sea at high tide."

"WARRINGTON, (or Warnford), a township in the parish of Bamburgh, county Northumberland, 3 miles S.E. of Belford. This place was formerly more considerable than at present.

[Description(s) from The National Gazetteer of Great Britain and Ireland (1868)
Transcribed by Colin Hinson 2003]

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